Thomas Struth Photography Exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, London
OCA Study visit on 3rd September 2011
I did some reading around Struth and his photography in preparation for the Study Visit. Born in Germany in 1954, he originally studied painting at the Dusseldorf Academy but then moved towards photography where he came under the influence of Bernd Becher, professor of photography and his wife , Hilla. The Bechers were known for their rigorous devotion to the 1920s German tradition of Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), and their photographs were clear, black and white pictures of industrial archetypes (pitheads, water towers, coal bunkers). In an early interview whilst still a student, Struth commented that
“Photographs that impress me have no personal signature”.
“The photograph – “the undeniable truth of what is in front of you” – is for him the product of “an intellectual process of understanding people or cities and their historical and phenomenological connections. At that point the photo is almost made, and all that remains is the mechanical process.”
For me this goes right back to the early photographers with their belief in the objectivity of the camera, whereas as now much more is written and discussed regarding ways in which the camera reflects the photographer in choice of composition and view etc.
My journey to the Whitechapel Gallery was not a good one. It was a warm day; there was more weekend disruption than usual to underground services and the train was stifling. People were wandering around underground corridors trying to find a train to catch! I had to travel to a different station (Liverpool St) from the one I normally use and I was unsure of directions. There were also groups of police at various points along the way, and some of them I spoke to said they were waiting for an ‘assembly’ by the English Defence League (EDL). (Apparently we are no longer allowed to call them demonstrations). It was odd, I felt almost unreal and this feeling persisted (more on this later).
Our group had already started their tour of the Exhibition so I joined them on the fringes to begin with. The photographs were in groups, but not in chronological order and I will refer to the ones which particularly struck me as I walked around. The first photograph I saw was
A semi-submerged rig (2007). Almost covering a wall and with vivid colour. This remained the most striking image of the whole exhibition for me. Struth has captured the immensity of the rig and the sharp diagonal lines of the anchor cables almost leapt out of the frame towards me. It looks like a behemoth arising from the sea.
Stellerator Wendelstein 7-x 2009
Grazing Incidence Spectometer
These are examples of the highly detailed technological photographs. The Guardian interview reports Struth comparing these to “landscapes of the modern brain” – the one-sided investment in technology and science versus the “dwindling of political thought and engagement”. I’m not actually interested in the insides of engines etc but there was something that drew me towards the sheer complexity portrayed. I also thought what wonderful jigsaws these would make.
I had another thought as well concerned with scale. There is immensity of external scale of a structure (rig) as opposed to complexity of detail within a structure where everything has to be in a certain order to work to work properly (and safely). Am I learning anything here about Thomas Struth and a search for order within?
Another room displayed a selection of family portraits taken around the world between 197i8 and 2010. Here Struth is reported as attempting to show the underlying social dynamics by inviting the families to organise themselves within the pose. I was reminded here of Bert Hellinger, the German psychotherapist and his theories on family and systemic constellations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bert_Hellinger. Hellinger adopts a phenomenological approach towards recognizing what is essential out of all the diversity present in the world. So far as families are concerned he formulated an idea of ‘The Order of Love’. Each family follows an order of precedence and some of us may take on destructive family patterns as a way of ‘belonging’ to our family and re-enacting earlier generational traumas.
The Ma Family, Shanghai
It looks as if they chose to sit in their kitchen. I can only conjecture that this is the room where they experience themselves most as a family, eating and talking together but , then, this is only my imagination. The image is very large and in the actual very large photograph you can also see some motion blur on the gentleman standing by the fridge. I wonder why he moved?
The Felsenfeld/Gold family 2007
What is this room? It looks like a school room with the large map on the wall and the worn, wooden floor. What are they showing about themselves? Does this mean the family originate from all over the world? To me they look only partially relaxed in their environment somehow – erect, sitting forward, some arms and legs crossed.
Eleanor & Giles Robertson, Edinburgh 1987
Here the depth of field is shorter so the background is shadowy. To me this looks like an informal, formal photograph. Why did they choose to sit at the dining table and opposite each other? Is this how they often sit? Mr Robertson looks interesting to me. I can see a twinkle in his eye. His wife looks rather bored.
I found all of the portraits intriguing. The ones displayed were more formal than informal as if the families are responding to an older, Victorian idea, of how families should pose for family photographs (or could we be seeing something here which fits with Hellinger’s theories?). I would have liked to have seen some relaxed and informal photographs but I guess that Struth doesn’t go in for that type of photography.
It also reminded me of his diamond jubilee portrait of the Queen and Prince Philip – which isn’t in the Exhibition. They are also posed in this kind of way – being informally formal as it were. The Guardian interview goes into more detail about this portrait and how Struth approached it, “My approach was to say: here is the Queen and her husband, but here, also, is an elderly couple of the same generation as my own parents. What I am happy about most of all is that they are both very alert and so present in the room at this second, that they are not thinking of anything else at that moment the picture is taken.” That reminds me of the Robertsons’ portrait taken so many years before.
There were smaller black and white photographs of cities.
A very poor, low resolution image but showing the perspective which Struth captured in his series. Taken in cities such as London, Rome, Tokyo etc and somehow showing the less attractive side of cities. There is mainly an absence of people but remnants of them such as cars. It’s as if he’s trying to show you that all cities are pretty much the same – people are less important than buildings and cars. Again , in terms of composition, they reminded me of early photographs, composed along architectural principles and concentrating upon a central perspective..
There were other larger, coloured images of sprawling cities/towns – one in Peru built on sand and another in Japan. Again showing their immensity of scale. I was very much aware here of patterns made by windows and bricks.
Struth has been reported as looking for stillness in his life. During his search to conquer his inner restlessness, he made a series of photographs of jungles entitled New Pictures from Paradise. They have been described as the opposite of the cityscapes. He has said, “I wanted to make photographs in which everything was so complex and detailed that you could look at them forever and never see everything”. Very different from the Spectometer and Stellerator and yet similar in terms of complexity and detail. Again, to me, the jungles, although in different places, looked the same – a lush greenness, like the green abundance of nature where I live and where I can choose to be alone or mingle with other people.
I have read some of the blogs from fellow students and more than one has referred to a feeling of flatness. I felt the same. There was an absence of liveliness and beauty for me. The portraits seemed static. I could stand and admire the largeness, colour and meticulous technical detail but I didn’t feel drawn towards them. I still felt slightly unreal
There was a marked contrast when I walked outside the gallery. The sun was shining and it was even hotter. Again there was a long walk back to Liverpool Street and I didn’t really know where I was going until I saw the Gherkin in the distance.
For once it seemed like an old friend. I knew where I was and how I could get to where I wanted to be. I joined up with a couple of my fellow students and we exchanged views about the Exhibition and discussed cameras. There were even more police, in riot gear, with walkie talkies crackling and we debated whether to dare to hang around and see what happened. We slowly walked toward Liverpool Street and, to our surprise, some of the protesters were there actually blocking our way into the station.
During my journey home I reflected that, maybe, I felt the way I did because there was just too much disparity between what was happening inside the gallery and what was happening outside. Detail and precision versus the messiness of life!
6th September 2011
Part 4 : Light
Exercise 1 : Measuring Exposure (Project – the Intensity of Light)
My Canon 500D DSLR camera has four metering patterns;-
- Evaluative – (aka smart predictive and matrix). This is an all-round metering mode where the exposure is set automatically to suit the scene.
- Partial metering – Effective when the background is much brighter than the subject due to backlighting etc. The metering is weighted more in the centre.
- Spot metering – for metering a specific part of the subject or scene.
- Centre weighted average – the metering is weighted at the centre and then averaged for the entire scene.
When I first got a DSLR (just over a year ago now) I kept confusing, for example, spot metering with spot focussing and it’s taken me some time to appreciate that I can have different combinations and also that I can lock the exposure with the exposure button star button and change the focussing pattern by pressing another button. It’s fine when I’m photographing a scene and there’s time to set everything up, including the tripod, but still problematic for me at times when I want to take a photograph quickly because of what’s happening around me. So far, though, I’ve managed to avoid the temptation to just go into auto or program mode.
This first exercise has been a mix of experimentation and miscalculation – not helped by the fact that I’ve also recently acquired two new lenses and wanted to practise with them. The 135mm Canon lens doesn’t have image stabilisation and I need to ensure I have the right shutter speed to avoid camera shake without a tripod. The Samyang 24mm lens is optically excellent but all the technical knowhow has gone into this and it is manual only. This means that I’ve had to get used to using the histogram to check if I’m getting the correct exposure. For some photographs I also used my Fuji Finepix X100 and a Canon EF24-105mm zoom lens .
Unless I write otherwise, I have only reduced any apparent noise and/or sharpened the exercise images. I also stayed with auto white balance to maintain consistency.
4 to 6 photographs deliberately lighter or darker than average
It was early morning on a dark day. Because of all the greens I thought that a garden scene would be a low contrast image, so decided to increase exposure half a stop to see if it would suggest a brighter day.
135mm @ 16.5m f11 8.0 evaluative metering
The scene is certainly brighter but it looks wishy-washy as well. Because my eyes were full of green and red I hadn’t remembered we have some brighter, orangey roses and other flowers as well. This meant that there was clipping on the highlights and a loss of sharpness there as you can see. In Photoshop I did experiment with decreasing the exposure there which improved it but it didn’t alter the fact that the orange rose wasn’t sharp enough.
I decided to now reduce exposure half a stop
There was still slight clipping on the rose. I could have used spot meter but it was actually a very small part of the scene and I thought that , if I had done so, everything else would be much too dark.
Taken from an upstairs window with Fuji at f11 1/30th Pattern/evaluative
This was taken at minus 1 exposure because I’d realised from previous colour exercises that this can deepen the colour. Here I was endeavouring to bring out the colour after the rain.
Fuji f5.6 1/30 (minus 1) pattern/evaluative
It was dim inside my room. The histogram shows some loss of detail in the shadows on the window frame but I had reduced the exposure through focus on the pale card as I wanted to bring out its design.
Differing exposures on the same scene
Close-up of roses. All 135mm @1.7m. f11 evaluative.
a) 1 second
d) is the one that the camera measured as at the correct exposure. I prefer e) and, again, this confirms what I discovered in the colour exercises that slight under-exposure brings out a deeper colour.
All taken using Canon EF24-105mm zoom lens from a distance of 6.5 metres with evaluative metering. The lens is my husband’s – the first day I’ve used it and I like it. Unfortunately he says he won’t let me keep it because it’s his everyday lens. We did a quick swap because he wanted to use my 14mm Samyang lens.
40mm f8 1/30
The camera showed this was the correct exposure, but I could see highlight clipping on the histogram which was the bright sky between the tree branches, the road, church path and edges of gravestones.
35mm f8 1/25
I moved slightly, also widening the lens a little in attempt to reduce the highlight clipping, which worked to some extent.
40mm f8 1/50th
I decided to expose for the sky this time and then recompose. The trees now look dark and heavy though and there was still a little highlight clipping.
This is a re-working of 6c.In Adobe Bridge I used the recovery slider to deal with the highlight clipping; fill light to deal with the shadows and raised the exposure level very slightly. I then created an inverted ‘S’ in levels and increased centre luminosity in Nik Color Efex Pro.
Inside St Nicholas Church, Pyrford, Surrey, which is C11th and small and dim inside.. I used a Samyang 14mm lens at f8. I’m sure now that I could have used 5.6. This is a new lens and I’m only just getting used to its properties and the fact that it hasn’t got a full electronic link with my Canon camera.
I got quite obsessed with this shot. A while ago I visited Canterbury Cathedral and took a shot in the cloisters where it was dim inside but a lot of light coming in from the quadrangle. It had been a quick shot of two choristers in red gowns so there wasn’t enough time to really think about the exposure. Afterwards I decided that the perfect shot would have been where I exposed for the light but had a fill in flash to cope with the dark. Of course, I would have needed a tripod as well. A difficult manoeuvre still though for a chance shot.
On this occasion, I had the tripod and plenty of time but I still couldn’t get it right!
4 seconds on evaluative. You can see how over-exposed it is and all the detail has been lost from the window (middle of the day and light coming strongly through it.) I can see a lot of the detail on the runners and pews though.
0.6 on evaluative and there is now a little more detail on the window.
0.4 and I decided to use spot metering on the window this time. This histogram still showed highlight clipping.
¼ on spot. There was less highlight clipping but detail is very lost lost in the shadows.
I decided to use my Photomatix software and firstly attempted HDR using the first image, middle and last but it looked quite odd. Then I did an exposure fusion. This would have worked except that I’d forgotten that I’d readjusted my camera after the first shot so there was too much ghosting. I had to put the first image to one side and then do an exposure fusion using a different image.h
This is the result:-
I think this is too light and it doesn’t give the same feeling that I get when I’m actually in the little church.
After this I worked on 7d to see what would happen when I used the burn tool on the window:-
24-105mm lens @ 24m. f11 1/125. Here I diverted from the exercise brief to experiment and used the same photograph, altering the exposure in Adobe CR. I did this on the assumption that, if the exposure was correct to begin with there wouldn’t be highlight clipping.
Original exposure. Exposed for the sky and the church spire.
+1 exposure. It looks ‘washed out’ and the spire is pale.
24-105mm lens @ 28m
this was exposed for the sky and some detail has been lost in the shadows.
I used the same photograph and didn’t alter the exposure levels. Instead I used fill light in Adobe CRto see if I could gain more detail in the shadows and levels on auto, plus some tonal contrast in Colour Efex Pro.
I learned quite a lot from this exercise:-
- Some underexposure works well on flowers and foliage as it brings out the colour.
- Over-exposure (and consequent clipping) affects the sharpness of an image so it’s best to use spot exposure metering on brighter parts and then deal with the shadow detail in processing.
- If the highlights are too clipped then playing around with exposure in adobe CR won’t bring back detail that wasn’t there in the first place..
- Large extremes of contrast are difficult. You either have to decide which is more important and expose accordingly or use bracketing. Exposure fusion can work quite well if you’ve used a tripod and don’t alter the position of the camera.
- With regard to the gloomy church and bright window – I could have exposed for the window and then used soft fill-in flash maybe at each side of the pews if I had the apparatus. That would be more complicated.
- I made life complicated for myself by using several different, new, lenses.
6th September 2011